For the latest information on thermal monitoring in ESH, see the last chapter of the section.
Design of the building is adjusted to the foundation of future City Avenue. This avenue is provided in urban plans of Ljubljana. Therefore, the ground floor and mezzanin are at Dunajska road (future City Avenue), with entrances from arcade shaped public passageway.
Aboveground part of the building is divided into three horizontal sections: ground floor and mezzanine, nine floors and two terrace floors. Back part of the building is gradually narrowed from the fifth floor upwards. At the top of the building there are two terraced floors with superior duplex apartments with terraces (penthouse). The residential area, above the ground floor and mezzanine, includes 128 passive apartments. The residential part of the building has three separated parts - gates. All apartments have balconies or terraces. Apartments are of different sizes and categories, from studios to five- bedrooms. In the lower floors are the smaller apartments and streamlined floor plan. In the upper floors, in the terraced part are more luxurious apartments (in terms of internal surfaces and associated terraces). Most apartments in upper floors can boast picturesque views of the castle hill with Ljubljana Castle, the Kamnik Savinja Alps or Škofja Loka hills with peak of St. Katarina at the forefront.
A backyard with grass, shrubs and trees will be implemented at the back side of the building. Paved paths with benches will be arranged together with children playground scattered in several parts of the district. The entire backyard will be enclosed with fence and completely internal and intended only for the occupants. Entrances to the residential areas of the building will be from the backyard - internal side and from the passageway, which connects to Dunajska road and backyard.
The car parking for tenants will be provided in four basement floors. There will be also storage and bycicle parking facilities.
Availability of services in the building or in direct proximity to the building is a measure of how well the services delivered in a building match users` expectations and provide functional quality of a building.
There are six commercial establishments in the ground floor with options for:
- Commercial activities
- Business and
- Service activities.
There are large green park areas with different options for sport and recreational activities (Stožice sport centre, Sava river recreational area, riding centre just near by. Different public services are in walking distance from ESH:
- Bank 100m
- Hotel 50m
- Post office 30m
- Bus station 200m
- Elementary School and nursery 300m.
The EU directive 2000/78/EC establishes conditions for a reasonable accomodation of employees with disabilities, which means that people with disability have a right to get adaptations to the workplace in order to be able to fulfil their job.
This directive is adapted in the technical regulation and standards of Slovenia.
Public place of the buildings are entrance and lobby, garage and six commercial establishments. All public places enable a barrier-free accessibility. There are the available ramps and lifts according to SIST 9527.
The bicycle storage is near by main building entrance. There are three bicycle storage rooms in the building, one near each entrance. In the one bicycle storage area is for 25 bicycles.
BICIKELJ (free bicycle rent of Ljubljana municipality): the nearest parking place is 500 m away.
Availability of daylight throughout the building
By an early and integral daylight and artificial light planning, a high quality of illumination can be created with low energy demands for illumination. Furthermore, a high degree of daylight use can enhance capability and health and reduce the operational costs. It is believed that proper daylighting schemes can help reduce the electrical demand and contribute to achieving environmentally sustainable building development.
Lighting control integrated with daylighting is recognised as an important and useful strategy in energy-efficient building designs and operations of ECO SILVER HOUSE. The daylight is available in all appartments, where possible with french types of windows (from ceiling to floor).
View to the outside
Providing building users with a view to the outside is an important requirement because it is in the spirit of sustainable and user-oriented planning and is necessary for user satisfaction in constantly occupied areas. An unimpeded view to the outside is often limited or even obstructed by the use of blinds or shading. The contours, colours, and brightness gradients of surrounding outside areas are clearly recognizable by looking through.
Appartments in Eco Silver house offer quality views to the outside, different views of the city, The Kamnik Alps, the Ljubljana Castle and recreational, green area close to the Sava river. Most of the apartments have views from living rooms.
Preventing glare in daylight
Glare prevention in daylight includes the planned antiglare system, which may be the same as the sun-shade system. The antiglare system generally serves the purpose of reducing excessive contrast in luminance between the man and the window. Ideally, it consists of a system independent of the sun shade, which can be regulated individually and which can be adjusted such that daylighting conditions in the room can only be slightly reduced. Work surface are arranged such that the illuminating or illuminated surfaces do not cause glare and that reflections are prevented to the greatest extent possible. Windows are equipped with a sufficiently adjustable shading mechanism which allows the intensity of the daylight reaching the workstation with display to be reduced.
In the ECO SILVER HOUSE all windows and loggias have an external blinds which are electrically controlled by the appartment user. An automatic, interactive control mechanism will regulate the operation of the blinds, depending on the
amount of solar radiation, its entry angle and the season (by closing them during the summer for protection from sunlight, and by opening them during winter for additional solar gains).
Quality of materials and their sourcing
Quality and the sustainabilty of used materials including the furnishings, material of finishings and furniture contribute to living comfort since the apartments` users are in daily contact with these materials - but also to overall building sustainability. While, for example, the type of wooden floors relates to personal preferences of ocupant, the sourcing of used wood contributes to sustainability if these wood products are produced from sustainably managed forests, have proven environmental qualiy demonstraded by appropriate quality marks or certificates. The use of localy produced materials and product can contribute to sustainability in order to reduce the travel costs and impact to environment.
There are using different quality levels.
In Eco Silver House different quality levels of used materials for furnishings and finishings are used, according to end-use needs and requiements. There are wooden floors of different types, gypsum walls and bio wall paintings to list some of optional materials.
Indoor air contamination with indoor air pollutants
Indoor air is important because people spend a substantial proportion of their time in buildings.
Nowadays, building material can include formaldehyde, naphthalene, toluene, xylenes, styrene and xylene.
However, even a very limited amount of building material with such contents can affect the indoor air quality. Problems of indoor air quality are recognized as important risk factors for human health in both low, middle- and high-income countries.
Even a very limited amount of building material with such contents can affect the indoor air quality.
Occupancy-based ventilation rates:
According to the standards EN 15251 the indoor air quality can be expressed as the required level of ventilation. Ventilation in the building is designed considering all sources of pollution present including material emissions and adequate (quantity, quality) air for evey person. Basis for the criteria for indoor air quality and ventilation rates are defined in standards EN 15251. Indoor environment of a building as the indoor environment of typical rooms, representing different zones in the building can base on design, can be evaluated by measurement or calculation.
Eco Silver House assures air quality and appropiate ventilation rates with ventilation device with heat recovery of exhaust air or by-pass air exchange. With that a minimum of 30 m3 of fresh air per hour per person is assured or 400 m3 /h for individual apartments. Due to the active ventilation it is not necessary to open windows for ventilation, bringing high energy savings. Local ventilation systems, capturing the air from the green backyard side of the building, provide fresh air with closed windows, despite the location next to the main city roads.
All rooms in the house are permanently ventilated. With built-in filters for purification of air, only bacteriological filtered air is entering in the apartments. Sound-insulating windows offer a peaceful sleep with fresh air (24dB or less), despite possible outside street noise 67dB (only Dunajska road). Recuperation allows low cost of heating, with up to 85% exhaust air heat
The thermal confort is a key element of living confort in a moderan building. Operative temperature is the average of the air dry-bulb temperature and of the mean radiant temperature at a given place in a room for air velocities that do not exceed the 0.2m/sec. It is defined as the uniform temperature of an imaginary black enclosure in which an occupant would exchange the same amount of heat by radiation and convection as in the actual non-uniform environment. Evaluation of Operative Temperature is based on EN 15251 and EN 7730. Studies have shown that in buildings without mechanical cooling, occupants are predicted to be less critical to higher temperatures than in buildings with mechanical cooling. Radiant temperature asymmetry can cause thermal discomfort and people are most sensitive to asymmetry caused by warm ceiling or cool walls (windows). Draught, air velocity: Air drafts on part of the body affect the thermal comfort of the occupant, so the air velocity is limited. (The method of EN ISO 7730). It is valid within temperature range of 20 to 26°C and a turbulence intensity of approximately 40%
Eco Silver House will assure thermal confort and room temperature of 20-26°C, considering the current outside temperature with its intelligent HVAC system, implemented and controlled in each individual apartment. Every user can simply adjust the living environment to its requirements, with no impact on overall costs and to neighboring units. Additional cooling of in-blown air will be done via a duct cooler. An external inverter air-conditioning device will be installed in the lobby. Larger flats, studios and duplexes will have an additional internal unit of the air-conditioning device, installed in the anteroom or in living areas. An automatic, interactive control mechanism will regulate the operation of the blinds, depending on the amount of solar radiation, its entry angle and the season (by closing them during the summer for protection from sunlight, and by opening them during winter for additional solar gains).
Through the transparency of the costs, users are additionally motivated to save. Beside assuring thermal comfort for occupants, control in individual apartments, the system was designed to assure energy efficiency, economy and easy maintenance. Due to very good insulation and balanced heating and cooling, quality windows (triple glassing, low thermal conductivity) and ventilation system with recuperation - the impacts of radiant temperature asymmetry and air velocity with be reduced to minimum.
The humidity in indoor air influences the living confort. The upper limit for absolute humidity (perceived humidity) of 12 g of water per kg of dry air do not exceeded (based on EN 15251). Normally, the moisture in the air should be in the range: 30 - 60% in terms of relative humidity. Relative humidity is an estimate of the how saturated the air is with water vapour.
In Eco Silver House the moisture will be managed with the advanced ventilation system and ICC (Intelligent Control Centre) which will enable measuring of moisture in individual apartments.
In Eco Silver House - the insects, particulates (dust, pollen, etc) will be filtered at air intake of the venilation system. Different filters will be used (G4, F6, Brink Renovent HR). Due to position of the recuperator (ventilation device) and central position of vertical shaft providing air supply, the servicing and filters exchange will be simple via service doors in the cooridors.
Acoustic comfort of the apartments should be assured by minimizing indoor ambient noise level. The Technical guidance of noise management in buildings (Pravilnik o zaščiti pred hrupom v stavbah, Official Gazette of republic of Slovenia, no. 10/12) requires the noise level with closed windows ≤ 24dB. In apartment buildings, the contractor has to (prior to the final inspection) ensure the measurement of sound insulation in the presence of a responsible supervisor. The measurements are carried out to check the conformity of protection against noise with the requirements guidance
In Eco Silver House, the acoustic comfort, that is the reduction of noise level will be assured with:
- Triple glazed windows
- Position of the ventilation system in the central, inner part of the building with vertical shaft providing air supply.
With this solution, the problem of noise from the city's entry road, namely Dunajska Road will be solved.
Intelligent control centre (ICC) will be installed in all appartments of the Eco Silver Houser in order to control the use and operation of the appartment and to achieve the maximum efficiency of the building.
ICC will enable the management systems in two ways: automatic and manual. Automatic means that the individual set of elements will regulate automatically, which in case of shading depends on actual current positions of the sun, taking into account seasonal variation. Automatic mode is absolutely best method from the aspect of energy savings. Manual means that each element can be controlled by control centre freely, but with the knowledge that this is not an efficient energy saving manner (method).
ICC will increase comfort with the use of "profiles" of living. Profile "I'm home" through the ICC will turn on all systems to active and ready to use (e.g., all lights activated, sockets, temperature is set for a comfortable stay - e.g. 21°C). When we set the profile "I'm out", ICC will automatically configure all systems in the dwelling to be adapted to the empty apartment (all devices are completely turned off, not in a standby mode). When the temperature in the apartment in winter drops for a few degrees – ICC will open the blinds to let the sunlight in, when the temperature in the apartment in summer rises a few degrees, the opposite will happen.
The building should be designed and build to enable effcient cleaning and maintenace. This stage of the bulding life cycle is much longer than planning and construction phase so the costs and problems can accumulate in these years. The load-bearing structure, the non-load bearing internal and external structures shoul be carfully designed to reduce these costs.
Thermal comfort was evaluated in several rooms in two different apartments, respectively B1.5 and B1.6.
The evaluation was done in two monitoring campaigns, respectively in March 2015 and in July 2015.
The equipment used during these campaigns was composed out of the following sensors : a black globe temperature sensor, an air and relative humidity sensor and an air velocity sensor.
The measured data were used to calculate the predicted mean vote ( PMV ) and the percentage people dissatisfied ( PPD ) as defined by the ISO standard 7730 .
The main results and conclusions are shown in enclosed slides which were presented at the last general assembly in March 2016 in Ljubljana.
Also a more detailed overview has been made and enclosed.
In general, thermal comfort in the apartments is good. However, since the apartments were not occupied, relative humidity values were rather low and have penalized the evaluation. When occupied, it is expected that relative humidity and thermal comfort will further increase due the presence of people and the use of kitchens and bathrooms. Since the ventilation system doesn't have a recovery unit on the air exhaust who also recuperates humidity , it may be necessary to install humidifiers to achieve the highest comfort levels in winter. In summertime, the thermal comfort is good but could be improved further by raising the temperature set point which was set at 20 °C, rather low during the summer monitoring campaigns.
The results are presented in slides alReview ESH thermal monotoring.